The example were-forms in the books are a loup-garou (hereditary curse), some hexenwulves (demonically enchanted belts), and some straight-up werewolves (taught by another werewolf). The game has an example were-mouse but I forget the origin of her powers.
The straight-up werewolves are actually not werewolves in the classical sense, and neither (technically) is their teacher - they're all focused practitioners who know a single trick really well, changing to wolf and back, with the exception of their teacher, whose single trick is changing to HUMAN and back. So that's one kind of werewolf, basically a wizard whose only spell is "Become Wolf." They don't have any special abilities or powers beyond being wolves with human minds; they are not stronger, faster, or otherwise enhanced. Being clubbed over the head hard enough will kill them in either form just fine. HOWEVER, that's because they're all very minor practitioners. A more powerful practitioner might be capable of a "buffed" form and other advantages.
Loup-garou are created by curse; they change on the full moon, uncontrollably, into giant demon berserker wolves that can't be killed - or slowed down terribly much - short of divine intervention or the use of inherited silver empowered by faith. You don't want to be a loup-garou.
Lycanthropes are essentially people possessed by animal spirits, which makes them psychotic and physically powerful. No transformation - or at least not much - but they have animal traits and instincts.
Hexenwulves are an example of the use of a magic item to accomplish the same thing as the first example: one spell, "Become Wolf," but powered by demonic investiture which also makes users stronger, faster, and kind of evil, inclined increasingly towards lust and violence. You could probably make a not-shitty version of one of these that doesn't make you evil; the people in question using them had no magic at ALL and were just being trolled by Hell, essentially.
There are fae who can shift shape as part of their purview. Black Court vampires can pull it off. Et cetera. The Dresdenverse is kind of a fantasy kitchen sink, so almost every idea has some kind of representation somewhere.