Major European Powers; Those with significant colonial interests, budding imperialist governments, and the strongest navies-
England: Virginia Colony, Plymouth Colony, Hudson Bay
Spain: South and Central America
The Ottoman Empire: The Barbary Coast and Near East
The Holy Roman Empire
The Dutch Republic
Contested Regions; Hotspots of activity where all the major players have some influence, but no major control
The South Pacific
Joint Stock Companies; Though (mostly) loyal to their nations of origin, these new corporations control shipping, negotiate trade agreements rights, and conduct most of the 'on the ground' business associated with exploiting the native populations and their resources. They have their own fleets and armies (and agendas), exercising a certain amount of sovereignty on foreign soil as dictated by their charters with the rulers of the European powers-
The East India Company (British)
The Dutch Colonial Venture Company
The Franco-American Compact
Day to day:
Sail Power, Muzzle Loading Firearms, Touch-hole Cannons, Coffee, Tea, Heliocentric Universe (Earth Orbits the Sun), The Spinning Wheel, Graphite Pencils, Periodicals (News Papers and Magazines)
Flint-Lock Firearms, Compound Microscope, the Thermometer, Medicinal Tobacco, Cavorite Flight Technology, The Reflecting Telescope, Chemistry (as opposed to Alchemy), the 'Flush' Toilet, Bank Notes (Paper Money), Ice-Cream, Refracting Telescope, Logarithms,
On the horizon:
Steam Power, The Scientific Revolution, Industrial Technology, Percussion Cap Firearms, Electricity, The Mercury Barometer, Calculus, Coke Blast Furnace, Rubber, Modern Steel
Cavorite Flight Technology-
Cavorite is the particular rare and volatile mineral ore that has provided for our age of Flying ships. Aeronautical (as opposed to just nautical) vessels utilize a combination of cavorite ore which (when wet) generates an anti-grav effect allowing a ship to fly, and balloons filled with C-Gas, a byproduct of cavorite refinement. Cavorite is highly unstable in it's natural state, and will combust violently when subjected to much more than a cool, static environment: there is enough explosive power in a handful of cavorite to blow off a limb if dropped from waist height, or exposed to an open candle flame.
Experiments with cavorite as a potential military technology had disastrous consequences ever since it's discovery in the early 1500s, and it was not until the end of the century and the efforts of Alexander Mason, whose process of refinement (now known as Masonizing) rendered it into a generally stable state, with the amazing property to create lift when exposed to moisture. The byproduct of this process, cavorium trihydride, displayed similar properties and in conjunction with an iron-cavorium alloy, Mason developed the first sky faring vessels, earning himself a lord-hood and revolutionizing exploration and warfare.
C-Gas is plentiful and easier to come by, but goes inert over time and is also highly flammable. A cost-effective solution for smaller military vessels and merchants on a budget, the necessity of a balloon takes up space that might otherwise be used for more sails, not to mention the explosive potential it represents in combat situations.
Refined Cavorite by comparison is used to some degree on almost all full-sized vessels as part of the keel or hull of a ship and water pumped from any convenient source is used to wet it and send the ship aloft. Allowed to dry out, the ship will descend slowly, but otherwise the use of rudders and planes allow for combat maneuvering. Vessels which rely solely on cavaorite can be fitted with more sails and overall canvas, making them faster and potentially more maneuverable than balloon vessels, as well as better in a drawn out fight since they have less risk of explosive combustion. Cavorite Vessels are a symbol of wealth and power, with the largest military vessels (dreadnoughts), sky-fortresses, and floating colony ships have entire hulls or else solid cores of the purest cavorite.