My doctor does that... and the condition you mentioned, that included a hospital stay, didn't sound routine to me. I'm actually very happy with my doctor and if I'm not I'm free to find another. In the free market people who can't afford quality care are out of luck... that doesn't sound like what you're proposing.
Have you seen the movie Idiocracy? It has a humorous spoof on what medical care will look like in the future and it's actually similar to what you're proposing... a price list (which actually exists, ask any insurance company! On second thought, I'm sure they won't let you see it).