In general, in the US there are some of those programs, but they are generally limited, and the availability depends on degrees.
If you teach for a minimum number of years, then in at least a few states the student debt is forgiven, but most states require a teaching degree of some kind, or a degree of specialty in the area you practice.
In Colorado, a relatively rural and rather mountainous state, there is a program to forgive student debt if you take a job as a doctor in some of the very very rural areas of the state. This was done to help reduce the number of people that die due to how long it takes to drive or be driven to a doctor (given that driving across that state takes about as long as driving across 2-3 relatively small European countries).
The thing is that most of these programs are done state-by-state based on the needs of the particular state and the needs of the people in that state.
You're not as likely to be as far away from a doctor in New York state, for example, as you are in the highly-rural parts of Colorado.
Of course given the recent wide-scale changes to how student loans are handled, this may have changed. I heard that the federal government now directly provides all student loans, rather than it being provided through banks. However this information was only from one off-hand reference from TV news, so I'd have to more fact-checking to verify that.