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Author Topic: Fun Academic Articles and Findings  (Read 4821 times)

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Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #50 on: February 08, 2019, 01:26:22 AM »
Fashion Alert! Researchers have fabricated a textile that dynamically regulates heat passing through the its weave, automatically cooling or insulating the user depending on exogenous stimuli. [Article]




Fig. 1. New fabric created by University of Maryland scientists YuHuang Wang and Ouyang Min is the first textile to automatically change properties to trap or release heat depending on external conditions. © Faye Levine, University of Maryland.

Oh what the heck  :o One shirt for every weather? I've been wanting something like that forever.

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #51 on: February 10, 2019, 02:10:42 PM »
Neuroengineers from Columbia University have created a methodology that translates thoughts into logical, decipherable speech. A scientific first, this novel concept utilizes a combination of artificial intelligence (AI) and speech synthesizers to allow for new ways for computers to communication directly with the human brain and vice versa. [Article]




Fig. 1. Schematic of the speech reconstruction method. (Akbari et al., 2019).


REF: Akbari, H., Khalighinejad, B., Herrero, J. L., Mehta, A. D. & Mesgarani, N. (2019). Towards reconstructing intelligible speech from the human auditory cortex. Scientific Reports 9(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-37359-z

Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #52 on: February 10, 2019, 02:21:02 PM »
Noticed the headline on that as well (though did not read further into it). Does sound pretty amazing. Potentially game breaking for helping some disabled people?!

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #53 on: February 10, 2019, 02:32:38 PM »
Noticed the headline on that as well (though did not read further into it). Does sound pretty amazing. Potentially game breaking for helping some disabled people?!

Agreed! We all want to be understood one way or another  :-)

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #54 on: February 13, 2019, 05:38:39 PM »
Bug Out! Researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark, have discovered that insects leave tiny DNA traces on the flowers they visit. This newly developed eDNA (Ecological DNA) method holds a vast potential for documenting unknown insect-plant interactions, keeping track of endangered pollinators, such as wild bees and butterflies, as well as in the management of unwanted pest species. [Article].




REF: Thomsen,P. F., & Sigsgaard, E. E (2019). Environmental DNA metabarcoding of wild flowers reveals diverse communities of terrestrial arthropods. Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.4809

Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #55 on: February 15, 2019, 06:07:16 AM »
Those new techniques to sequence tiny amounts of DNA are really opening nifty new windows to so many things.

Offline gaggedLouise

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #56 on: February 15, 2019, 07:50:14 AM »
Researchers have suggested before thet there are signs of a sheet of liquid water on the underside of the southern polar ice cap of Mars. Now, a new study in a geophysics journal makes the conclusion that if there is liquid water down there, it could imply buried volcanism deep inside the Martian crust, or otherwise there would not be the kind of heat needed to melt the ice from below.

The presence of any sheet of water hasn't been proved yet, for sure, though we do know that water does exist on Mars and likely sometimes in liquid form - but the idea of volcanism and tectonic activity on the red planet is fascinating. It would have to have been very recently in geologicial time - withjin the last few hundred thousand years - which would point to it being an ongoing feature of Mars over time. Also, volcanic vents plus liquid water increases the chances of primitive life forms.

http://www.marsdaily.com/reports/New_study_suggests_possibility_of_recent_underground_volcanism_on_Mars_999.html

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #57 on: February 21, 2019, 03:24:14 PM »
This video provides an interesting perspective on the dilemma facing conservationists in Silicon Valley, California. What defines nature? What would you do?


Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #58 on: February 21, 2019, 03:40:10 PM »
That is interesting. It is really hard to say indeed, especially now that we're causing big moves in the ecosystems and moving species with climate change.

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #59 on: February 21, 2019, 03:59:41 PM »
That is interesting. It is really hard to say indeed, especially now that we're causing big moves in the ecosystems and moving species with climate change.

You bring up a valid point. We are indeed on the cusp of the Anthropocene, or the Age of Man. For those who are interested, I highly recommend watching Anthropocene: The Human Epoch (2018) to learn more about this paradigm shift in our climate and how we as humans are both responsible for its inauguration and its explication.

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #60 on: February 22, 2019, 06:04:26 PM »
Researchers have discovered that the introduction of predatory organisms into the environment can cause single-celled organisms such as algae to evolve into multicellular organisms over the span of fifty (50) weeks, which is the equivalent of 750 generations. You can watch time lapse videos of the phenomenon in the supplementary information near the end of the publication. [Article]




Figure 1. Depiction of C. reinhardtii life cycles following evolution with (B2, B5) or without (K1) predators for 50 weeks. Categories (A–D) show a variety of life cycle characteristics, from unicellular to various multicellular forms. Briefly, A shows the ancestral, wild-type life cycle; in B this is modified with cells embedded in an extracellular matrix; C is similar to B but forms much larger multicellular structures; while D shows a fully multicellular life cycle in which multicellular clusters release multicellular propagules. Evolved strains were qualitatively categorized based on growth during 72-hour time-lapse videos. Strains within each life cycle category are listed below illustrations. Representative microscopic images of each life cycle category are at the bottom.




Herron, M. D., Borin, J. M., Boswell, J. C., Walker, J., Chen, I-C., K., Knox, C. A., Boyd, M. Rosenzweig, F. & Ratcliff, W. C. (2019). De novo origins of multicellularity in response to predation. Scientific Reports 9: 2328. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39558-8

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #61 on: March 02, 2019, 12:06:43 AM »
Researchers from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) have discovered that spider silk – one of the strongest materials for its weight – produces a strong twisting motion when exposed to humidity, which could prove useful for future artificial muscles or actuators. [Article]





Figure 1. An experimental setup used to study the behaviour of spider dragline silk. The cylindrical chamber at center allows for precise control of humidity while testing the contraction and twisting of the fiber. © MIT

Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #62 on: March 02, 2019, 01:22:33 AM »
Spidersilk really is amazing. Now we just need some way to make tons of it.

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #63 on: March 07, 2019, 06:14:36 PM »
According to a new publication by researchers at UCL, doctors have observed the second contingency of a patient ("London Patient") demonstrating sustained remission from HIV-1 after ceasing treatment. The case study was published approximately ten years after the first case, known as the "Berlin Patient". [Article]




Figure 1. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image revealing the presence of numerous human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) virions budding from a cultured lymphocyte. © Goldsmith, P. Feorino, E. L. Palmer, W. & R. McManus.



Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #64 on: March 08, 2019, 05:34:35 AM »
According to a new publication by researchers at UCL, doctors have observed the second contingency of a patient ("London Patient") demonstrating sustained remission from HIV-1 after ceasing treatment. The case study was published approximately ten years after the first case, known as the "Berlin Patient". [Article]




Figure 1. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image revealing the presence of numerous human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) virions budding from a cultured lymphocyte. © Goldsmith, P. Feorino, E. L. Palmer, W. & R. McManus.



This is quite amazing. It's humbling to see how decades of reasearch slowly working towards the cure finally begin to pay off. A bit worried though that the virus couls mutate to use some other receptor, but maybe with good clinical practice it can be delayed. Still, really uplifting ;D

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #65 on: March 11, 2019, 10:57:56 PM »
In Yellowstone National Park, researchers from Washington State University have discovered thermophilic bacteria that "eat and breathe" electricity through solid carbon surfaces of electrodes, which could be utilized for low-power applications to help alleviate one of the biggest challenge facing humanity; environmental pollution and sustainable energy. [Article]





Figure 1. Pools of hot water like this one are home to thermophilic bacteria that can "eat and breathe" electricity via filamentous cilia that affix endogenous electrons to outside metals or minerals. © WSU, 2019.



The aforementioned article is reminiscent of other studies demonstrating the promising potential of utilizing microorganisms in achieving global sustainability, including bioremediation of contaminated land:



Articles


  • ENN. (2018). A biological solution to carbon capture and recycling? Retrieved March 11, 2019 from [Article]

  • Flashman, E. (2018). How plastic-eating bacteria actually work: A chemist explains. Retrieved March 11, 2019 from [Article]

  • Mohamed, A., Ha, P. T, Peyton, B. M., Mueller, R., Meagher, M. & Beyenal, H. (2019). In situ enrichment of microbial communities on polarized electrodes deployed in alkaline hot springs. Journal of Power Sources, 414: 547. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2019.01.027

  • Rhodes, C.J. (2014). Mycoremediation (bioremediation with fungi): Growing mushrooms to clean the earth. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 26(3), 196–198, DOI: 10.3184/095422914X14047407349335


Videos





Offline 3jackdaws

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #66 on: March 12, 2019, 11:49:09 AM »
A lecture on bioelectric computation found in animals and what we might be able to learn from these naturally occurring computational architectures.


Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #67 on: March 12, 2019, 02:41:03 PM »
So much cool stuff today ;D Thank you guys!

Offline Al Terego

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #68 on: March 13, 2019, 11:04:51 PM »
And now to something completely different.

Research suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, fans of violent music are not desensitized to violence.

The BBC report.
The research paper.

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #69 on: March 17, 2019, 01:06:18 PM »
Neuroscientists from the University of California in Berkeley may have developed an alternative to regaining vision from retinal degeneration. Instead of electronic eye implants, patients can undergo gene therapy where intraocular AAV delivery of spliced green opsin can give them enough eyesight to discern patterns at a resolution sufficient for myopic reading. With exisiting AAV therapies already approved, this new therapy could be ready for clinical trials in as little as three years. [Article].


Image Warning: Contains Needles


Figure 1. Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) engineered to target specific cells in the retina can be injected directly into the vitreous of the eye to deliver genes more precisely than can be done with wild type AAVs, which have to be injected directly under the retina. UC Berkeley neuroscientists have taken AAVs targeted to ganglion cells, loaded them with a gene for green opsin, and made the normally blind ganglion cells sensitive to light. © John Flannery, UC Berkeley.

Offline Oniya


Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #71 on: March 22, 2019, 08:28:06 PM »
A team of researchers from Stanford University has developed a novel method to harness our planet's most abundant natural resource for chemical energy. Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the findings demonstrate a new way of separating hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater via electricity. Existing scientific methods rely on highly purified water, which is a rare, precious resource (< 1% Tw) and costly to produce. [Article]




Figure 1. A prototype device that utilizes solar radiation to create hydrogen fuel from seawater. © Hongjie Dai, Yun Kuang & Michael Kenney.

Offline Al Terego

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #72 on: March 22, 2019, 09:07:58 PM »
I remember playing around with salt water electrolysis as a kid, the salt acting as an electrolyte -- a bowl of water, table salt, two large nails and a handful of 9V batteries.  The nails would corrode like crazy, which apparently was the problem that the researches set out to solve.

Offline Argyros

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Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #73 on: March 30, 2019, 06:22:37 PM »
An approved drug typically administered for treating fungal infections also has the potential to effectively treat people with cystic fibrosis, new research suggests. The drug, amphotericin B, can function as a molecular prosthesis for a dysfunctional protein channel called CFTR, which is a key agent in fighting infections. Researchers have compared the new drug with another pharmaceutical called ivacaftor, which is also known to improve the function of CFTR proteins with specific mutations. Lab tests with human grown lung cells have proven that both drugs can improve pH levels, increase bicarbonate secretion and decrease viscosity of fluid accumulation in the lungs. However, only amphotericin B was able to restore function in patients since it bypasses the mutated CFTR protein.[1]. [Article]




Figure 1. People with cystic fibrosis have a genetic defect called G551D that causes the exclusion of the CFTR protein within the lining of the lungs that releases bicarbonate (HCO3-), a key compound in fighting infections. The drug amphotericin B can form channels to release bicarbonate in lung tissue, restoring the airway surface liquid's antibiotic properties.



Online SainTopic starter

Re: Fun Academic Articles and Findings
« Reply #74 on: April 01, 2019, 04:44:18 AM »
That is nice, moreso since it's an approved drug so they don't have to go through as rigorous testing to get it to the patients! Good to see these kinds of studies that give secondary uses for known compounds. I guess they might not be very exciting to carry out in the lab, but we for sure need more of them :P