This kind of thing has - besides the time alone - always very heavily depended on the more exact region, the class of the people in question, the specific individual, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. Were there some people who believed this kind of thing? Certainly. Were there some who did not believe, or at least did not bother to act on it the slightest? Definitely. Even religion wasn't as strong as it is commonly believed to be - plenty of people were fairly irreligious in some regions (planting crops was more important than praying; it yielded much more obvious results).
Surprising as it might seem, some regions have actually regressed aplenty as far as equality goes. In the older times, though, you could also expect such beliefs to be much more localized - one village could think one way, the other village fifty miles away the exact opposite. Some authentic older literature paints fairly good pictures of what real people thought and acted like.
If we go to times predating most literature, the picture becomes even more varied - Egiptian women had the rights to own property and even divorce, some nordic areas buried women with weapons and brought them along to raids, some battle-burials (as in, burials of warriors killed in battle, not raid-results) included nearly half women in other regions, noteworthy queens and rulers surfacing every now and then, so forth. So yes, plenty of proof of women having been doers of things on and off.
If we aren't speaking strictly Earth, then all this would, of course, be quite meaningless... Another world, free reign. Especially once magic gets involved.