So what is this "federalized" United Kingdom I kept hearing the BBC talk about while covering the vote results?
It's an attempt to answer the West Lothian question.
The West Lothian question is this; under devolution (and certainly under the sort of devolution max that is now being talked about) Scotland and to a lesser extent Wales and Northern Ireland have their own parliaments and powers separate to MP's at Westminster. As such an MP representing a Scottish constituency can vote on issues at Westminster that don't
have any impact on his constituency, because that policy area is controlled by the Scottish parliament. This seems self-evidently unfair; if a law would only
(technically and practically) apply to England and/or Wales and/or Northern Ireland why should a Scottish MP get to vote on it?
The currently favoured solution is generally called "English votes for English laws" and essentially means that if a law would only impact on England, only English MP's could vote upon it, in essence turning the House of Commons into a de facto English Parliament for such measures (how the House of Lords would work is still an open question). This would seemingly federalise the UK; laws that only impact Scotland decided by a Scottish parliament, Wales a Welsh parliament, England an English parliament and the whole UK the current UK parliament. Following the UK's proud political tradition it's a bit of a fudge (Scotland would have seperate MP's and MSP's, England would only have MP's) but on the face of it it's a fair solution.