@Derwaysh: First and foremost , the Islamic history specifically is told by tongue and there's hardly any physical evidence of any occurrence prior to the Othmani Empire. Of course we can exclude from that the Scientific findings by Muslims during their rule in Spain. There's also the raid of the Mongolians who , as history tells , erased and burned all texts that the Abbasy rule had collected and created.
With that out of the way , let me address your post.
When scholars like Ali Dashti conducted their research, wrote their books, had them banned and were subject to torture by their own governments (which potentially removes the shi'ite leaning considering how he was persecuted by the Iranian government for a book considered not very friendly to the masses) I quote; The study of the history of Islam shows it to be a sequence of struggles for power in which the contestants treated the religion as the means, not as an end. . . . The further the Prophets death receded into the past, the greater became the tendency to treat the religion as a means, rather than as an end in itselfto use it as an instrument of seizure of the leadership and the rulership.
The way I see it , this is how any rule associated with religion happens. When a religious figure dies , his ideals slowly fades and only labels of what he used to say remains. Take Christianity for example. It was first the source of rule and conquest but now it is a choice and nothing else. Islam will reach that stage. Mohammad himself predicted when he said in one of his Hadiths " The most virtuous and righteous of my people are those who lived in my century , then the century that follows , then the century that follows. And God have mercy on those that follows for wrong and dissonance will be their faith. "
So by saying that Islam became a tool rather than the goal is a correct statement. However , that only happened later on and not during the 4 Caliphats rule. Or rather the first 3.
This account has also been confirmed by Husayn Haykal. Followed by momentary panic the Medinians (Ansar) and the Meccans gathered in their own respective tents to plan for the future from which Abu-Bakr emerged successful. What followed is Tabari's account as chronicled in 'Chasing the Mirage';
This one just irked me and I had to correct it. During those days Makka and Medina were small towns ... People did not live in tents in those two towns. Only the Nomads did.
Abu-Bakr was clearly pointing out to the supposedly divinely ordained superiority of the Meccan Quraysh Arab tribe over all other Muslims, including the Medinians. Abu-Bakr extolled the virtues of the Arabs of Medina, but emphasized to his hosts that despite their high status, they should recognize the Meccan Arabs as the “leaders” and consider themselves as no more than the “helpers.” He then warned them that “only a wrongdoer would dispute” what he had said.
The divisions were unanimous, especially those brought up by Abu-Bakr during his speech betwixt the two tribes of Medinians which had only reconciled its differences when Muhammed came into the fray. Despite Muhammed's many messages. As Muhammed himself proclaimed in his final speech; “O people, your Lord is one, and your ancestor is [also] one. You are all descendants from Adam and Eve who was born of earth. The noblest of you all, in the sight of God, is the most devout. God is knowing and all wise [Quran sura 49:13]. An Arab is superior to a non-Arab in nothing, but devotion.”
This except from Chasing the Mirage sums up my point; "Whilst many present day Muslims would like to believe that the ascension of Abu-Bakr was the result of an election that came about after vigorous debate and consultations, the fact is that not a single member of the Prophet’s family, the Banu Hashim clan, was consulted. Nor was there any input from the tens of thousand of Muslims who lived in Mecca, or the Bedouin tribes in the desert hinterland. Needless to say, not a single woman, not even the wives or the daughter of the Prophet, had any say in the question of who was now to lead the Muslims. By declaring that only Arabs belonging to the Meccan Quraysh tribe could fi ll the seat of the caliph, Abu-Bakr set the seal of authority on the theory of tribal and racial supremacy of the Arab over the non-Arab for many centuries to come."
I noticed how your source forgot ( Or perhaps you forgot to quote it ) that Abu Bakr was Mohammad's best friend. As in what they say on the internet 'BFF'. He was the first to believe in Mohammad's prophecy , and he was his companion during the Hijrah*. He was always by his side , and he was always the first to learn about any new teachings for this new religion. Also it is said that Abu Bakr gave whatever wealth he had in Makka to be by Mohammad's side.
And when Mohammad died , Muslims did panic. What he did was say a speech. And this was his most famous line.
"Who worships Mohammad , know that he died. And who worships Allah , Then god lives forever."
It was then during this speech that everyone chose him to be a leader. It wasn't an election. The term is far too sophisticated to imply to this situation. But he was chosen because he was ' Khalil Mohammad' And Khalil means the best and faithful friend back in the day. Now it just means companion.
Now that I explained how Abu Bakr came to be the first Caliphat and he only ruled for two years. Allow to give my take on such articles.
It is easy to propose an underlying political agenda to any historical event. Its up to the beholder to make sense of it or not. The thought of Abu Bakr choosing his lineage over others seems appealing. But that would mean that he was hoping for Mohammad's death in order to rule in his place as well. ( See now I am taking these research a bit further in order to show you how easy it is to alter a non recorded history to your own appeal. )
I hope this clarifies a few things and adds up to the knowledge this thread provides.
Hijrah = It is the historical mark in which the Lunar Calender for Muslim is based upon. The day Mohammad chose to immigrate to Medina to escape Quraysh's terrorizing treatment , he did it in silence and Abu Bakr was his companion. That event marked the begginning of the Islamic Calender. However it was Omar , the second Caliphat who ordered the Muslims to uphold this event as the mark of their Calender.