That's another good one that pops up. Seeing God in the world because it's just too perfect to be chance. I have an analogy for this one I've been working on. Someone told me that life on this planet is too perfectly suited to their environment, natural selection couldn't have nailed it that good. This is my response.

Say I show you a room with a hundred dice. As far as you can see, they are all 6. I didn't move them, they landed on 6, and I placed them here. WOW you say. That's incredible! How could that ever happen by chance? It's just too perfect.

But would you find it so impressive if you stepped over here and looked out this window? That's the ocean. Filled entirely with dice. All of them rolled 1 to 5. The reason this room looks so perfect is because your only seeing the winning numbers.

In the case of life, about 92% of the species on the planet are extinct. They just didn't get a good roll of the genetics die. Simply unlucky, to not have gotten just the right genes, and the ones that did still died off some times. That 8% of species we see now are just incredibly lucky, and even they have nagging problems from genetic randomness.

Further to your example, even without the ocean, the room full of dice landed on 6 is no more or less probable than any other combination of the same number of dice. The probability of a die landing with any particular face up is 1 in 6. The probability that in any particular room with n dice all will land with 6 up (or any other face) is 1 over 6 to the nth power. But that is the same probability for any other combination of n die faces showing. So, for example, if we were rolling only 3 dice, the probability of rolling three 6s would be 1/216 (1/6 x 1/6 x 1/6). This is the same as the probability of rolling 1, 2 and 3, or 4, 5, and 6, or 2, 2 and 5 or 1, 3 and 6, etc., etc. For this reason, I've never understood the argument that the improbability of this particular world's existence points to the intercession of some intelligent being -- ours is no more or less probable than any other world.

One of the other problems with the anthropic argument -- and I think this is where your ocean of dice comes in -- is that we don't know how many rooms full of dice there are. The probability that

*any* particular room will contain all sixes may be very small, but the probability that

*some* room will contain all sixes varies with the number of rooms. If there is an infinite number of rooms, there will be an infinite number containing each possible combination of n dice.

There are credible (though, as yet, difficult to test) scientific theories positing the existence of many, perhaps an infinite number, of universes. If there is a large number of universes, the likelihood that one or more will favor life may not be small at all.