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Author Topic: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)  (Read 2204 times)

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Offline SheronaTopic starter

A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« on: December 01, 2007, 11:31:15 PM »
ok a question..


At what temperature Farenheight, does Gasoline freeze.

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #1 on: December 03, 2007, 08:40:54 AM »
Gasoline: Seems like around -97 F depending on alcohol content and other factors. But that was just on some discussion board so I have no idea if that's right.

-97 degrees is the correct flash point of freezing gasoline. However it is still theoretically able to burn at 97 degrees below zero. If there is significant amount of water mixed it can still freeze at 32 farenhieght. Gasoline and othe rfuels are a mix of hydrocarbons, some thicker some thinner then others so its kind of variant :)

To be totally precise some fo the thicker hydrocarbons won't become solid until atmospheric temperatures are reached. so to be safe and if your talking about a complete block of solid -200 to -300 degrees, not something your likely to see outside of a lab :D

Yay for Apple :D

Offline Zakharra

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #2 on: December 03, 2007, 08:49:49 AM »
 At what temperature will ethanol gas freeze?

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #3 on: December 03, 2007, 10:04:24 AM »
That one is interesting. Ethanol has the ability to absorb water more then most methane gas, So it pretty much is not possible to freeze at 32 degrees farenhieght. However it will still flash freeze at 97 degrees below zero, just not as thoroughly as some of the more mundane gasolines. I have not been able to find an exact temperature however.

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #4 on: December 03, 2007, 12:14:49 PM »
ok a slightly more indepth question.

The fusion of two protons, the first step in the proton proton fusion cycle theorists realized that the temperature of the interior of the sun (around 14 million Kelvins) did not provide enough energy to overcome the coulomb barrier of electric repulsion of the two Protons. How did they over come this difficulty?
« Last Edit: December 03, 2007, 12:43:58 PM by Sherona »

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #5 on: December 03, 2007, 12:55:41 PM »
Let's see, AFAIK proton-proton fusion instead involves the conversion of free protons to neutrons through the weak interaction (generally binding free electrons though I'm sure other interactions happen). Inside the core of the sun the average proton waits for a billion years before it is converted into a neutron. Given its half-life of about 15 minutes, some just turn back into protons, but since they are neutral they have no resistance to charge and can thus fuse with protons and make deuterium, which makes all sorts of fun fusion products.

Just one of the reasons we are not researching along this path for fusion technology.

That's just off the top of my head without looking it up though.

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #6 on: December 03, 2007, 12:59:44 PM »
*bounces* Fun fusion products yaay :) Really nice answer Veks, someone elses turn now :D

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #7 on: December 03, 2007, 01:02:25 PM »
Why is muon radiation considered so much more dangerous than electron radiation?

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #8 on: December 04, 2007, 05:00:41 PM »
Just a drop in so you know i havent given up yet :D

Found out a few things about muons, such as 200 times the mass of a regular electron, that they are found in things such as cosmic rays and other spacial occurences (for lack of a better english word for it..>.>) and that interesting things are being done using Muon Radiation..still have to connect the dots and find out what makes it speciifically more dangerous then the electron :) But just been in a funk all day.

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #9 on: December 04, 2007, 08:30:04 PM »
Had to cheat a bit, got a hint from Veks "German word" as well as that its more of why is Muons more penetrating.


So, if an electron and muon have the same energy E, the electron will emit 207^6 = 7.81101^3 times more radiation than the muon. This is why muons have such high penetrating power they lose very little energy via bremsstrahlung.

That calculation is straight from Wikipedia article, however I found a few articles on Muon Bremsstrahlung to support it so I am happy with the 'facts'. If anyone wants these articles I can provide the link, but they are written in German :)

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #10 on: December 04, 2007, 09:02:32 PM »
Hehe yeah, dangerous was a bad word, sorry :-/

Mmm penetrating! I mean err, someone else's question :-p

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #11 on: December 06, 2007, 07:02:29 PM »
What law is applied to describe the attenuation of solar or stellar radiation as it travels through the atmosphere.

Offline strangely made

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #12 on: December 07, 2007, 04:14:52 AM »
Bouguer's law.

I=Ioexp(-T)

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #13 on: December 07, 2007, 07:16:16 AM »
close but not quite. I will give a hint because the way the question is worded can be tricky. The Law itself is abotu the absorbtion of Light, used in optics, spectroscopy and spectrophotometry,

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #14 on: December 07, 2007, 09:24:54 AM »
I have no idea what you mean if it's not the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. It's also called the Attenuation Law for light photons in matter.

When used to calculate atmospheric transmission it includes a laundry list of factors - T is replaced be airmass times the sum of T coefficients representing aerosols, mixed gasses, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, ozone, and Rayleigh scattering. But calling it the Bouguer law is still technically correct, if not often used that I can tell.

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #15 on: December 07, 2007, 09:38:20 AM »
lmao..*feels really silly* I haven't seen it stated as simply Bouguers law before >.> Threw me. I have seen it stated as Beer Law, Beer-Lamberts, and Beer-Lamberts-Bouguer law.

Apparently there was some dispute who should be attributed to this law, according to Wikia, but the book I was reading "Spectrophotometry" didn't mention any dispute.


Teaches me to stay up till the wee hours readinga book..

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #16 on: December 07, 2007, 11:58:20 AM »
What is the hardest substance currently known, what color is it and why?

Offline Cherri Tart

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #17 on: December 07, 2007, 12:10:49 PM »
i really have no idea, but the voices in my head are yelling Carbon, and i think that's black, and really, that's about the best i can do to add something to this discussion... 

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #18 on: December 07, 2007, 12:42:00 PM »
Carbon is found in many substances, including Diamond which is one of the hardest substances, but also found in Granite which is so soft that just a light press of it leaves marks behind.

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #19 on: December 07, 2007, 12:43:34 PM »
i really have no idea, but the voices in my head are yelling Carbon, and i think that's black, and really, that's about the best i can do to add something to this discussion... 

There are many allotropes of carbon. Sherona means graphite in her above post, granite is pretty hard :-p

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #20 on: December 07, 2007, 01:40:49 PM »
oh yeah I meant graphite >.> Sorry :(


Ok here goes.

Apparently in 2005 a group of german physicist found that by compressing Fullerene molecules, (according to wikia this is about 60 carbon atoms per molecule. I haven't found a supporting source for this though..albeit my head has been turned by the ADNR's :D) to a pressure of about 20 GPa (this is confirmed else site) and at the same time heating it to about 2500 kelvins, a new substance called Aggregated Diamond Nanorods (ADNR)

This substance was compared to a crystalline diamond by loading a diamond anvil cell with both single crystal diamond and ADNR material, in order to directly compare their behaviour under static load. It was found that through this, the ADNR was 11% more compressed when compared to the crystalline diamond (will post link to my source so you can have all the nifty equations) Experiments conducted at the ESRF confirmed that the X-ray density of the ADNR material is higher than that of diamond by 0.2 - 0.4%, thus making it the densest form of carbon.

That being said. I could not find any supporting facts about the color of the ADNR, however I did find an interesting pic of Stereomicroscopy of the ADNR here http://www.esrf.eu/news/spotlight/spotlight25nanorods/spot25fig1

However, considering the density, and the heating that occurs during the creation process I would assume it would be black or close to it, as the interconnecting diamond rods would give it a denser look..what looks more dense then black? *shrugs*..this is just a wild stab inthe dark :P Though the Stereomicroscopy picture makes it look a bit multi-colored.


http://www.esrf.eu/news/spotlight/spotlight25nanorods/index_html/
« Last Edit: December 07, 2007, 01:53:13 PM by Sherona »

Online Vekseid

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #21 on: December 07, 2007, 02:30:08 PM »
Yes, it looks pretty much black as far as I know, because the crystalline structure has been disrupted and black is the color of graphite and most other allotropes of carbon. : )

Offline Cherri Tart

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #22 on: December 07, 2007, 02:31:58 PM »
so umm.. does that mean i got it right?  :)

Offline SheronaTopic starter

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #23 on: December 07, 2007, 02:40:01 PM »
You were sort of right :D You knew it was carbon based :D and the color..:D

Offline Cherri Tart

Re: A question! (Chemistry and Particles)
« Reply #24 on: December 07, 2007, 02:43:05 PM »
that's pretty impressive for me!  i is a genuine general genius girl!