Scale, for one: it's about twice the size, roughly speaking. MUCH more space between turrets and in the jungle for maneuvering, prolonged fights, ambushes, etc.
Trees are destructible and there are many more paths between them, making for more chase/escape opportunities and enabling a lot of juking through the fog of war. And, as I think it bears repeating, trees are destructible. Someone jumps over a "wall" of trees? Tear them down!
Roshan, the rough equivalent of Baron, exists from the moment the game starts, enabling a number of low-level Rosh-rush strategies that simply aren't possible on SR because the thing doesn't even spawn until 15 minutes in (not that the mechanics of LoL would enable killing Baron at level 1 anyway).
Shops in the jungle and lanes mean less running back to base to resupply, as do the couriers, encouraging more diverse strategies since failure doesn't automatically mean you have to recall and run back out to lane, as opposed to "out-sustain, win lane" being the king of laning 99% of the time.
More jungle spawns and spawn-stacking mechanics make it viable to have multiple heroes farm the jungle and, as a result, multiple heroes share a lane by having the support heroes go back and forth from the lane to the nearby camps and back, thus aggressive or defensive tri-lanes, dual-lane mid, dual off lane with dedicated jungler, etc. Point being there are more varied and viable options than "always 1/1/2/jungle." Which of these types of setups works best for your team depends on the heroes you pick, but the map is what allows for them to happen at all. Tri-lane in LoL? Maybe you'd get an early turret with hard pressure, but someone's going to end up starved by mid-game, maybe more than one, and then you get punished and rolled.
I don't play DotA 2, but I watch a lot of tournament games of it. The variety of strategies and tactics employed absolutely dwarfs those I see in LoL tournaments.